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Millennium Development Goals

Created date

Thursday, May 26, 2016 - 11:22

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have been so far the most comprehensive of creating a global program of social development planning attempt, and therefore constitute a milestone in human history that can serve as inspiration or experience for future processes really integrators. It is eight goals that were established in 2001 as a way to give concreteness to the "Millennium Declaration" of 2000 signed by the 189 member countries of the UN, following processes that led to several world summits during the 1990s, that needed to be translated into implementation on the ground. The scope of action of the MDGs stood in 2015. The objectives are:

1. Eradicating hunger and extreme poverty.
2. Achieve universal primary education.
3. Promote gender equality and empower women.
4. Reduce child mortality.
5. Improve maternal health.
6. Combat AIDS, malaria and other diseases.
7. Ensure environmental sustainability.
8. Develop a global partnership for development.

Here are some facts reflecting the seriousness of the situation here: 1.2 billion people survive on a dollar a day, 925 million go hungry, 114 million children of school age do not go to school 11 million children under five die year from curable diseases, and half a million mothers during pregnancy or childbirth.
Three million people die each year from AIDS and malaria 850,000. 2.4 billion have no access to potable water.

The eight goals were initially divided into 18 targets and are measured by 48 indicators. In the project for the development of the MDGs, the Millennium Campaign, have been implicated international, continental, national and local government agencies, civil society, private actors and individuals, all of which include some of the objectives in its implementation programs or lobbying, which otherwise would have no common denominator. The United Nations General Assembly promotes its implementation and different organizations including UNDP and the World Bank are coordinating the evaluation.

However, the lack of ambition of the MDGs in line and solving the world's problems is a reflection of the contradictions between the actors and participants interests. The program has been criticized first by a gradualist definition ignores the immoral and criminal nature of many problems and do not seek justice. hunger, insecurity, violence, underdevelopment, lack of education or health, environmental degradation or homelessness among others can not be solved are so ignore (or are being resolved in a very slow manner) without questioning the system that generates them. It is aware that these social ills are a permanent violation of human rights of individuals and societies affected. For example, the goals aim to reduce "half" of hunger or poverty or "two-thirds" of infant mortality, morally leave their fate to the other half or third of the population concerned. Thus, the project is minimalist not only by expectations of real change or unambitious material, but by the inability or disinterest in framing a comprehensive vision necessary transformation of the mode of organization of humanity and the planet.

Second, the lack of ambition of the program include add little interconnection in the treatment of different objectives and little attention paid to the underlying causes of measurement problems. For example, it has ignored the treatment of inequalities and according to the CADTM not take into account complex indicators that reflect the multidimensional nature of phenomena such as poverty, such as the Human Development Index (HDI). The same applies to the choice of indicators on the environment and disease (malaria, AIDS). Furthermore, in the case of the latter have been used indicators insufficient and even outside the problem, and ignored other more significant.

Third, in the search for causes beyond the measurement itself it has also ignored the wave of neoliberal policies is located at the origin of increased poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and other phenomena. The entire program thus constitutes a small social compensation against the devastating nature of the neoliberal wave on a global scale. Thus, although the official development assistance, the main factor according to official sources, had not been drastically reduced because of the crisis in the North, its greatest strength would not be enough to counter other global phenomena such as privatization of public services, financialization of the economy, the permanence of the debt of southern countries observed despite some progress, the decline of program resources ODM own, and others. However, in terms of defining objectives, these are ignored and other factors with a social impact more evident such as the elimination of armed conflict, the implementation of all (DESC) Economic, social and cultural rights and particularly the right universal to employment, institutional reform of the UN system and global governance, treatment of migration, military spending or other. Meanwhile, many of the recommendations to meet the goals represented a continuity of the neoliberal recipes based on economic growth, liberalization and competitiveness, based on dogmas as financing by borrowing, the free movement of capital but not of people and market growth as a recipe for poverty alleviation, and in the field, promoting intensive agriculture away from the real needs of the population.

Fourth, in early 2013 it is clear that the targets will not be met by 2015. The MDGs have achieved success in precise sectors and regions, but largely due to the development of some emerging economies such as China or India, which did not apply neoliberal measures recommended by the program. Progress is uneven depending on the different sectors and regions, sub-Saharan Africa being the most disadvantaged region. On the other hand the successive food crises, oil and finance have resulted in the loss of part of the achievements and the revival of poverty. Here are some facts (some 2010):

– The number of hungry people has increased from 845 to 925,000,000.
– School enrollment has grown slightly but still 100 million children do not attend school, one in four in Africa.
– Still nine million children die annually before the age of five and 350,000 women during pregnancy and childbirth, two million people to AIDS and 860,000 by a curable disease like malaria
– 884 million lack drinking water, 2.6 billion to adequate sanitation system as a toilet and latrines, and 828 million live in barracks. Biodiversity remains seriously threatened with an increasing number of endangered species.

At the end of 2012, more than two years before the end of the program, they have launched various consultation processes to redefine a new agenda after 2015 among which the High Level Panel, the consultation meetings and virtual "my world" (elective type) and "the world we want" (deliberative type). The latter has defined 11 new MLAs representing existing or forgotten aspects Millennium Campaign. These are: inequality, governance, health, environmental sustainability, population dynamics, water, growth and employment, conflict and fragility, food security and nutrition, education and energy. However, the process 2015 does not question or examine in depth the capitalist model that causes aggravation of an important part of the evils that want to solve, or address the problem from the perspective of the human right to development, recognized however by the United Nations.

Some organizations and critics have proposed, among others, the following alternatives and factors to consider: respect and preservation of human rights including DESC; the strengthening of fragile democracies and citizen participation, universal mobility of migrants; demilitarization and commitment to the prevention and effective resolution of wars; a favorable international trade to benefit the least; a mandatory code of ethics for transnational; greater gender equality; and universal basic income redistribution; generalize and equal rights of workers in the world; the democratization of international institutions; the cancellation of external debt and tax havens and the establishment of global taxes and Special Drawing Rights.

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